By optimising several transition pathways, the main trends emerge: energy efficiency, local renewable energy, and finally, import of renewable fuels and electricity. Furthermore, an analysis of the overall transition shows the benefit of anticipating policy decisions such as the ban of technologies that are not compatible with a low emission system. The energy transition will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. With a profound change in the energy system and an integrated approach across sectors, this ambitious challenge can be overcome. Each country should contribute by maximising its cost-effective production of renewable energy before externalising the problem and unbalancing the efforts of other countries.